Origins Of The Gypsy/Roma/Rom History
History of the Gypsy/Roma
Diverse, nomadic…to be Roma, or “gypsy”, is to be a member of an ethnic minority that is difficult to define in any definite, factual terms. Throughout their history, the Roma have been comprised of many different groups of people, absorbing outsiders and other cultures while migrating across continents. This has resulted in creating a patchwork of groups calling themselves Roma, Romani, Romany or Gypsy, each with differing cultures, customs, and now in only the current times – written languages.
Despite their differences, the Roma do share certain attributes. Made up of four tribes or nations (natsiya), they are bound together at least through Rom blood and Romani (or Romanes), the root language they share. The Roma also hold common characteristics: they are extremely loyal to family and clan; a strong belief in both Del (God) and Beng (the Devil); belief in predestiny; and Romaniya, loosely translated as certain standards and norms in codes of conduct (which vary in degree from tribe to tribe). At their core, because of their history, they are a people who adapt to changing conditions.
There are conflicted points of view to where the Roma or Gypsies originated. Because they arrived in Europe from the East, they were thought by early Europeans to be from Turkey or Nubia. They were even thought to have been from Egypt, and were called, among other things, Egyptians, or Gyptians, which is how the word “Gypsy” originated. The most popular belief among scholars has the origins hail from India. But even their beginning in India is muddled with disagreements and an abundance of cold hard facts. Because of this, the Roma/Gypsy foundation in India has several versions.
Deep in the heart of India around 400 AD, work wasn’t as plentiful as it once was in the small villages. This dilemma forced a handful of Indians to become traveling craftsmen and entertainers. They moved along the countryside entertaining villagers at night and using their skills with wood and/or metal during the day. This subtle start to the nomadic life worked well from this point forward. The handful of wandering people grew in numbers as others embraced the nomadic lifestyle, yet they were still able to stay below the Persian radar until 440 to 443. This is when, rumor has it, the great Persian Shah Bahram Gur persuaded ever so forcefully that the Indian King Shangul should send him 10,000 Luri musicians so that they can run around Persia entertaining the hard-working people. The name Luri is used as opposed to Roma or Gypsy because before the 10th Century, gypsies did not exist by the name of Gypsy or Roma. They were known by various names tribal names including Zott, Jat, Luri, Nuri, Dom, Sinti, Domari and Athengani.
Around 820, long after the Luri entertained the countryside of Persia, the Zott arrived and set up state on the banks of the Tigris River. The Zott enjoyed living there until the Byzantines attacked Syria in 855. After the war, the Byzantines took huge numbers of Zotts as prisoners. Partly because of they were known for their excellent craftsmanship with wood, metal, and construction, the Zotts were used as slave labor to shore up and expand the empire. In addition to manual labor, their entertainment skills were also of high value as well as their gift of foretelling the future.
From 1001 to 1026 King Mahmud from Ghazni used to put forth a forceful effort to wipe out the Sindh and the Panjab tribes in India. King Mahmud invaded some seventeen times with a mixed army of Turko-Persian from Ghazni (which is modern day Iran). Rajput warriors, the Indian fighters (including Roma/Gypsy), were fierce and cunning, but King Mahmud finally wins. His reward was half a million Indian/Roma/Gypsy slaves.
Another version of the Indian origins doesn’t make any mention of the Roma/Gypsies until the war with King Mahmud (who was called Muhamad Ghazni in this version) in 1001. Here the 500,000 Rajputs fighters were prisoners of war and placed in Afghanistan. While prisoners, they were ordered to convert to Islam by the threat of the sword. Many resisted and were either killed or they escaped to Armenia and/or Greece.
Yet another version of the same story had the rulers of India put together troops from a variety of ethnic backgrounds to fight King Mahmud (Mahmud of Ghazni in this version) and keep Islam out of Hindu territory. The Indian/Rajput’s Troops were victorious. The descendants of these troops crossed over to south-eastern Europe for asylum, to escape forcible Islam conversion by the Turks, around 1300.
Some other theories that have had people take notice of the Roma/Gypsy origins include that the first Gypsy was a son of Eve, from her sexual relationships with Adam after his demise. No mention was ever said how he survived the great flood (as in Noah and that Ark). Some others feel that Tubal Cain and his half-brother, Abel, are the originators of the bloodline based on the Book of Genesis, Chapter IV Verses 19 – 22; “Lamech took unto him two wives and the name of one was Adah and the name of the other Zillah. And Adah bore Jubal. He was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. And Zillah she also bore Tubal Cain, an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.”
Another theory which has gained steam over the years was that the Gypsies/Roma is descendants of Abraham’s children by his second wife, Keturah. She gave him six children; Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbah, and Shuah. When the Israelites left Egypt, the children’s descendants went with them. Exodus xii.38: “and a mixed multitude went up also with the Children of Israel.”
While the origins remain scratchy, what most can agree on is that there were great migrations through Roma/Gypsy history that had dispersed them throughout the world, beginning with the first wave when it was assumed they left India over a thousand years ago. The next great move, known as the Aresajipe, was from southwest Asia into Europe during the 14th century. The third great migration was from Europe to the United States during the 19th century and early 20th century after the abolishment of Romani slavery in Europe.
In the second half of the 18th century, European scholars studying the Roma/Gypsy found that the Romani language shared basic words, including numbers, action, family relationships, etc. with the Eastern Indian languages. So it appeared that its roots appear to be based on Sanskrit, the historical language of the Hindus of India.
While the official language of the Gypsies, Romani, has many dialects, it is a spoken-only language. There are, still, many common words used by each dialect. Thus, based on language alone the Roma/Gypsy are divided into three sub-groups (which like everything else about the Gypsies is surrounded by controversy): the Domari of the Middle East and Eastern Europe (the Dom), the Lomarvren of Central Europe (the Lom), and the Romani of Western Europe (the Rom). Among themselves the Roma speak their own language; otherwise, they speak the language of the country they currently occupy.
The wheel represents a sixteen-spoked chakra, which is the Romani symbol. A chakra is a link back to the Gypsy/Roma’s Indian ancestry (India has the 24-spoked Ashok Chakra in the center of their flag) and represents movement forward and Creation. The Romani flag is green and blue with a red chakra in the center. The Roma motto and Romani anthem is “Opre Roma” (Roma Arise) and the song “Gelem, gelem,” also known as “Djelem, djelem”.
Today there are approximately more than twelve million Roma/Gypsies living across the world. It’s difficult to put a final tally on their numbers, as many Gypsies lie about their heritage due to economic, social and political reasons.
Source: The Mysterious & Magical Gypsy/Roma by Allie Theiss (paper for Middle Eastern Class – 2009)
Gypsy/Rom History In the US
The Rom arrived in the United States and Canada from Serbia, Russia, and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, as part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions. Many in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and refining of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectioneries and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.
Virtually all the anthropological and sociological work on North American Gypsies concerns the Rom, an emphasis which has led a British observer to label the North American academic tradition “Kalderashocentric,” Kalderash being one of the Rom subgroups. The first work covered in this bibliography to concern the Rom appeared in 1903. Material appeared sporadically after that, and steadily from 1928 onward. This group is also referred to in the literature as Nomads, Coppersmiths, Nomad Coppersmiths, Vlach (or Vlax) Gypsies, or by reference to a country from which they immigrated to North America, as Brazilian Gypsies, Bulgarian Gypsies, and so forth. The individual subgroup terms Kalderash and Machwaya are also used. While in the Kalderash dialect of the Romani language, Rom is both singular and plural, the Machwaya dialect has plural Roma, which is also found in the literature. The inflected language of the Rom belongs to the “Vlach” branch of the Romani language family. Native speakers refer to “speaking Romanes” (adverb) “in the Gypsy fashion.”
A group of Rom who began immigrating to the United States and Canada from eastern Europe in the 1970s is represented primarily in the police literature, where they are referred to as Yugoslavian Gypsies.
(reprinted from The Gypsy Lore Society) http://www.gypsyloresociety.org/cultureintro.html
Gypsy/Rom Fortune-Telling (Dukkerin’)
It is difficult to think of a Gypsy and not see the image of a crystal ball or tarot cards. Since their push into Persia, Gypsies/Roma has been simultaneously linked with fortune-telling. From the Eastern, holistic and magical context to their Indian origins, Gypsies or Romas, are prized for their remarkable psychic abilities and the gift to attract good fortune or destroy a life with a curse. All are born with such gifts, but what makes their powers so innate is their relationship with nature. Their bond with the spirits of the outdoors allows their gifts to evolve naturally.
Gypsies/Roma believes that within their own there are certain ones who possess great power through the ability to perform magic with their special range of knowledge. Such people known in the Gaje, or white man’s world, are usually called witches, warlocks or wizards but within the Roma/Gypsy society, they are known as chovihanis.
Among the chovihani there are four favorites for fortune telling (or dukkerin`): palm reading, tea leaves, the crystal, and cards. These methods are of a “practical” nature and do not take anything complex or expensive to utilize.
Surprisingly, the Roma/Gypsy usually do not consult a chovihani or anyone else for the past, present or future knowledge. Nor are the chovihanis held in high esteem because of their gifts; rather it is the money brought in by their gifts that gives them a place of honor within the society.
Palm Reading: Palmistry is the most common divination method. It requires no special equipment or props of any kind, can be practiced discreetly, and has traditionally been the first method taught to children by their mothers. Palmistry is a combination of both chiromancy and chirology, or a belief that is based on the idea that certain parts of the body have an independent spirit.
The hands can be considered a simple chart of our lives. The left-hand reveals the life we are born with while the right hand is what we make of that life. In a reading, the chovihani uses the lines, mounts, divisions, and type of hand to tell of a person’s past, present, and future.
Tea Leaves: Reading the tea leaves has always been a popular divination method, especially in the 1930s and 1940s when “Gypsy Tea Rooms” sprung up quite frequently, sometimes featuring less than authentic “Gypsies.”
The questioner begins by drinking Chinese tea or any large-leafed variety with a round cup, white or very pale, with a handle. He or she will drink the tea until only a spoonful or less is left in the cup. With their left hand, the tea is swirled around anti-clockwise, three times in the cup and then turned upside down to drain. The cup is then turned right-side up and passed to the chovihani to read the leaves.
Crystal Ball: The image of a Gypsy, huddled over a crystal ball, is a familiar one, made popular by the movies and TV. In reality, the crystal ball is rarely used as it takes much preparation before and during the reading. It is difficult to be “on” all day to read the crystal ball. Normally if on call for the day, the chovihani will gaze at the ball but use their own intuition for the reading.
However, utilizing the crystal ball is an art that can be mastered with dedication and patience. For gazing, gather a crystal ball (or any reflective surface – a bowl of water, mirror, metal, etc.), a black cloth (to put the ball upon) a comfortable chair and a table. The trick here is to “gaze” into the ball and not stare. Meditate for as long as need to quiet your mind, gaze into the ball and interpret the symbolic images that appear.
Tarot Cards: The earliest known tarot deck came from India with the Gypsies introducing them to the world. Many chovihanis are happy to use playing cards in place of tarot cards. Since playing cards are derived from tarot cards, it really makes no difference which one is used in the art of fortune-telling.
A deck of tarot cards consists of seventy-eight richly decorated cards marked with a number of antiquated symbols. The cards are divided into two groups: The Major Arcana, consisting of twenty-two ceremonial pictures of symbolic persons; and the Minor Arcana, fifty-eight cards that represent the four suits.
The methods to interpret the cards are various and plentiful, with many books and web sites devoted to this topic alone. No matter how complicated or simple the method of interpretation, tarot cards are used to gain insight into a person’s actions and how they relate to the past, present and future circumstances.
Among the Gypsies, the magical arts are almost always practiced by women. Evidence of the chovihani (female) in gypsy society far outweighs the chovihano (male). The Gaje impression of a fortune-teller is also that of a woman and not a man. This view is no doubt based on the emotional, psychological and spiritual makeup of women. However, in the Gypsy society more specific and tangible reasons can be found based on the sexual and social categorization of their culture.
Although the quest to place the factorial origin of the Roma/Gypsies in India is far from over, they will always have the image placed on them as the original “free spirits” of the world. The Roma/Gypsy has lived a nomadic existence for thousands of years and has lived in harmony with nature longer than most because, this author feels, of their Eastern origins. With a kinship to mind, body, and soul that most can only dream of, the Roma/Gypsy have much to teach the Western world, if people would only listen.
Source: The Mysterious & Magical Gypsy/Roma by Allie Theiss (paper for Middle Eastern Class – 2009)
Gypsies/Rom During The Holocaust
Like Jews, the Rom Gypsies were chosen for total annihilation just because of their race. Even though Jews are defined by religion, Hitler saw the gypsies as a race that he believed needed to be completely annihilated. The Nazis believed that both the Jews and Gypsies were racially inferior and degenerate and therefore worthless.
On December 16, 1942, Heinrich Himmler had a “Final Solution” to the gypsy problem and issued an order to send all gypsies to the concentration camps, such as Dachau, Mauthausen, Ravensbruck and Sachsenhausenexcept to perish and become human guinea pigs. But the chosen gypsies, these “lucky” ones from Germany and Nazi-controlled Europe were sent to Auschwitz/Birkenau, where a special Gypsy Family Camp was erected.
At the hands of the so-called “doctors” at Auschwitz/Birkenau, they would torture Gypsy children and adults by putting them into pressure chambers, tested with drugs, castrated, frozen to death, and exposed to various other traumas. Some gypsy adults of child-bearing years were lured into voluntary sterilization on the false pretense that to do this would allow them to go free. The female volunteers were injected with chemical substances producing horrible pain, inflamed ovaries, and bleeding. If the subject lived through all of that, the damaged ovaries were then removed, without anesthesia, and sent to Berlin. Men and women were positioned repeatedly for several minutes between two x-ray machines aimed at their sexual organs. Their seared flesh was prime for infection, which many died from. Void of anesthesia, men had their testicles sliced off and sent to Breslau.
The man in charge of life and death at Auschwitz/Birkenau, Dr. Josef Mengele, oddly enough loved the gypsy children as much as he hated them. He had a soft spot for them and would give them treats of chocolate and candies. In turn, the children would call him “Uncle Pepe”. This Uncle facade allowed Dr. Mengele to get close to the children and made it easier to take them to the children’s barrack, nicknamed “The Zoo”, in order to be primed for medical and scientific experiments.
In July 1944, the order was given from Berlin to close down the Gypsy Family Camp. Those strong enough to be moved were to be sent to work camps, while the others, mostly women, and children, were to be liquidated in the gas chambers. At the end of July and early August 3,000 men were marched out to walk the long distance to the work camps with nothing for survival but the meager clothes on their backs.
“Night of the Gypsies”, August 2/3, 1944, the SS rounded up the rest of the gypsies by luring them out of the barracks with the promise of water and bread. Since it was well known by the SS that the gypsies would not go quietly to their deaths, the SS was prepared. After the gypsies realized what was going on they fought back with their bare hands but they were no match for the clubs and guns of the SS. The gypsies were loaded onto the lorries and driven to the gas chambers. Dr. Mengele drove the children under his care to the gas chambers and led them straight to their death. The gypsies fought for their lives until their last breath.
Figures for the number of gypsies killed during the holocaust range from 200,000 to a conservative 500,000. As gypsies could not read or write, many were not registered at the camps and if they were registered, a simple ‘Z” was placed where their name should be. Most gypsies were either killed in transit or where they were captured with no record of their deaths. A more realistic number of gypsy deaths is between 1.5 and 4 million, 80% of the European gypsies, slaughtered at the hands of the Nazis.
Dr. Josef Mengele escaped while in custody of the Allied forces and led a long life in South America until he died in 1979 in a drowning accident in Brazil.
Excerpt from: Gypsy Magic for the Family’s Soul copyright 2006 by Allie Theiss. All rights reserved.
The Ancient Power Of Healing – Romani Gypsy Shamanism
Deep in the Romanian forest, at the darkest time of night, a Chovihano (Gypsy Shaman) squats over a wooden floor as he engages in an ancient healing ritual. The ones that gather for healing do not see what the Chovihano is doing for he is bathed in the blackness of the night. All they can hear is his low conversations with the Trees and with the Spirits of the Sun, Moon, Air, Earth, Wind, and Fire asking for their aid. With his Bakterismasko (magic wand) he drums up the energy around him which by now is starting to flow freely, but powerfully around him.
The Chovihano jingles the Bakterismasko’s bells to ward off any lower unsavoury spirits from joining in on the healing ritual. He mummers command in the Romani tongue as he sprinkles salt for protection around those who have come for healing. He can feel the spirits have gathered to join him in his healing quest and he is in complete control of the Otherworld’s activity.
The Chovihano smiles and talks to all the spirits. It would appear to an outsider that he is talking to himself, but the gypsies that gather know that their Chovihano is in deep conversation with his Guardian Spirits. The gypsies watch him, as they are gathered around a fire with the clan’s Patrinyengri (an herbalist and usually the Chovihano’s wife), as she burns the sacred herbs of rosemary and mugwort for protection and for visions, while she too utters sacred words in the Romani language.
Now it is time for the healing to begin. The Chovihano walks about and jingles, as he is ladened with charms, amulets, talismans, coins and bells for protection. The Chovihano, with the aid of his tambourine, lucky charms and Spirit Guardians, rocks back and forth, moans and makes odd noises as he works himself into a healing trance. He is making contact with his Spirit Guides who will help keep everyone safe during the ritual.
His goal in this healing ritual is to be able to stand in the shoes of those in the group who are sick and/or troubled or bothered by a malevolent spirit so that the problems can pass through him and he can place those problems into one of the three levels of the Otherworld where they belong. If need be he can also travel to the three levels of the Otherworld for soul retrieval, which occurs when someone loses a part of their soul in a past or present life.
To be a Chovihano one is normally the son of the current Chovihano and begins his training in childhood. If no son is born to the Chovihano, then he hand picks his successor – with the help of his Spirit Guides – from the young males. The current Chovihano stays the Chovihano until he dies or is too sick to help. This is when the new Chovihano takes his place in the gypsy hierarchy.
The lifelong commitment of the Chovihano is an honor given to the chosen few, but his influence is felt by all the gypsies and throughout the generations.
Excerpt from: Gypsy Magic for the Dreamer’s Soul copyright 2007 by Allie Theiss. All rights reserved.
Gypsies In The Holocaust: “The Black Triangle”
This infuriates me to no end that the deaths of so many gypsies have been ignored by a large chunk of the world – mostly in the United States. This is why I wrote the screenplay, The Black Triangle, a historical drama with fact blended in with fiction to create a compelling and eye opening story. I have tried to shop it to H’wood. But since I am an unknown, no one wants to touch it, although everyone who has read it loved it. My hope is to turn it into a novel.
Activist Lubo Zubak (http://www.romafilmfund.com/) helped me out tremendously in my research and for that, I am forever grateful. Please visit his site and see if you can give him a hand in his filmmaking.
BOOKS AND WEB SITES USED IN RESEARCH
These are the resources I used as I wrote the screenplay. I encourage you to pick up one of the books or visit the web sites today.
1. Gerald Posner and John Ware, Mengele: the complete story (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986).
2. Linda Jacobs Altman, The Forgotten Victims of the Holocaust (Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2003).
3. Erika Thurner, National Socialism and Gypsies in Austria, ed. Gilya Gerda Schmidt (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998).
4. Romani Rose, The National Socialist Genocide of the Sinti and Roma (State Museum of Auschwitz, 2003).
5. Mengele’s Twins – http://www.auschwitz.dk/Mengele/index.htm
6. The Crime Lab (Serial Killers/Killers from History) – http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/history/mengele/index_1.html?sect=6
7. The Patrin Web Journal – http://www.geocities.com/~patrin/
8. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/
9. Holocaust: Non-Jewish Victims – http://www.holocaustforgotten.com/romgypsies.htm
10. The Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society: http://sca.lib.liv.ac.uk/collections/colldescs/gls.html
11. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gypsy_Lore_Society
PUBLISHED INFORMATION ON GYPSIES/ROMA
**Note from Allie: This list was comprised by a well-read gentleman on Gypsies & Roma. His name is Caiyros. I honestly cannot remember where I got this list from, but I do know that this list needs to be credited to the right person.**
Bibliography For Romani, Gypsy, etc:
Acton, Thomas. Gypsy Politics and Social Change. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1974.
Borrow, George Henry. The Zincali, or an Account of the Gypsies of Spain, London: John Murray,1841. Available as an electronic document via FTP.
Borrow, George Henry. Romano Lavo Lil: Word-Book of the Romany or English Gypsy Language, 1874.
Crowe, David M. A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1996) Prof. Ian Hancock remarks in his review (Roma #s 44-45, 1996) “Despite its inevitable Euro-American perspective on Romani history, David Crowe has done a remarkably thorough and compassionate job, and this book should be a basic research tool in any Romanologist’s library”.
Crowe, David. and John Kolsti, eds. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1991. Introduction and “The East European Roots of Romani Nationalism.” by Ian Hancock are particularly good, as are the remainder of the chapters, detailing the experience of the Roma in Germany and the Nazi’s genocide as well as their experience in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Roumania, Croatia, Serbia, and Albania.
Fonseca, Isabel. Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and their Journey New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. This one has created some controversy amongst reviewers. We have left it standing in the bookstore.
Fraser, Angus. The Gypsies 1992 Blackwell Publications Oxford, England. An exhaustive compilation of the historical records makes it a valuable reference, despite its somewhat lackluster interpretive/insightful content.
Hancock, Ian.The Pariah Syndrome: An Account of Gypsy Slavery and Persecution Ann Arbor: Karoma Press, 1987. Probably the single best source regarding persecution and slavery of the Roma.
Hancock, Ian. A Handbook of Vlax Romani Slavica Inc., 1995. Includes a discussion of the history and migration of the Roma from India to Europe.
Hancock, Ian. “What is The Best Thing To Call Gypsies?.” manuscript for Friends of Roma Children, ed. Mary Thomas. Alexandria, VA: (1993).
Kenrick, Donald, and Puxon, Grattan. Gypsies under the Swastika, 1995 (reprint of The Destiny of Europe’s Gypsies, London: Sussex University Press, 1972).
Kenrick, Donald. Gypsies: From India to the Mediterranean, Toulouse: CRDP, 1993.
Lee, Ronald. “The Kris Romani.” Roma. (July 1987).
Leland, Charles Godfrey. English Gypsy Songs in Romany, 1875. This beautiful little volume is a collection of verses printed in the Romani of the 19th century in England, with English translations and a brief glossary and dictionary.
Liegeois, Jean Pierre. Gypsies: An Illustrated History, 1986. Al Saqi Books, London. English translation based on Tsiganes, La Decouverte, Paris 1983 Useful for its many photographs.
MacRitchie, David. Accounts of the Gypsies of India, 1886. New Society Publications. Delhi, India.
McDowell, Bart. Gypsies: Wanderers of the World National Geographic Society, 1970.
McLane, Merrill F. Proud Outcasts: the Gypsies of Spain, 1987.
McOwan, Janne-Elisabeth. “Ritual Purity: An Aspect of the Gypsy Pilgrimage to Stes-Maries-de-la-Mer.” JGLS. Series 5, Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1994).
Petulengro, Gipsy. A Romany Life, 1936.
Pott, August F. : Die Zigeuner in Europe and Asien. Halle, Heymemann 1844-45
Rao, Aparna. “Some Manus Conceptions and Attitudes.” In Gypsies, Tinkers, and Other Travellers, ed. Farnham Rehfisch, 143-144. London: Academic Press, 1975.
Rishi, W.R.: Roma. 1976 Punjabi University, Patiala, India. Who better to understand the basis underlying their language, customs, etc., than an Indian linguist? So un- referenced amongst the internet resources we have found that we have reproduced large excerpts of this work here with the author’s permission and as a tribute to his work.
Schreiner, Claus, et. Flamenco Amadeus Press, Portland, Oregon. 1990. Translated from the German 1985 Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main by Mollie Comerford Peters. Collection of extremely well researched and interpreted essays. Undoubtedly the definitive work on the subject, with extensive bibliography, discography, list of festivals, etc. See Publisher’s Website for ordering information, also some music links.
Shashi, S. S.: Roma: The Gypsy World 1990 Sundeep Prakashan Delhi, India. Again, an excellent perspective from an Indian author.
Tomasevic, Nebojsa Bato, and Djuric, Rajko. Gypsies of the World, 1988.
Sutherland, Anne. Gypsies: The Hidden Americans New York: The Free Press, 1975. Reprinted Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1986.
Sutherland, Anne. “Gypsy Women, Gypsy Men: Paradoxes and Cultural Resources.” (Gypsy Lore Society) Papers From the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, ed. Joanne Grumet. (1986).
Sutherland, Anne. “Health and Illness Among the Rom of California.” JGLS Series 5, Vol. 2, No. 1 (February 1992).
Sway, Marlene. Familiar Strangers: Gypsy Life in America University of Illinois Press: Chicago, 1988.
Tong, Diane. Gypsy Folktales New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1989.
Yates, Dora, ed. Gypsy Folktales Barnes & Noble. NewYork 1995, originally published 1948. Some told in local languages of various regions, some in Romani and translated to English. Unfortunately the Romani texts are not printed, nevertheless these stories represent a significant collection of folklore.
The Romani Project – Univ. Manchester UK: http://romani.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/db/bibliography/index.html
The Gypsy Holocaust in World War II:
The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945 (1991)
Bury Me Standing: the Gypsies and Their Journey (1995)
Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust (1980)
The Pariah Syndrome: An Account of Gypsy Slavery and Persecution (1987)
Kenrick, Donald and Grattan Puxon
The Destiny of Europe’s Gypsies (1972)
Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany 1933-1945 (1988)
And the Violins Stopped Playing: A Story of the Gypsy Holocaust (FICTION) (1985)
The Nazi Genocide of the Sinti and Roma (1995)
State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau
Memorial Book: The Gypsies at Auschwitz-Birkenau (1993)
The Other Holocaust: Many Circles of Hell (1980)
“A Sinto Survivor Speaks.”
Papers From the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter. Ed. Joanne Grumet. (1986)
“The Gypsy Holocaust in Poland.”
Papers From the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter. Ed. Joanne Grumet. (1986)
“The Forgotten Holocaust of the Gypsies.”
Social Education Feb. 1991: 111-113.
“Scholars, Gypsies and the Holocaust.”
Papers From the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter. Ed. Joanne Grumet. (1986)
Bibliography – Culture
Acton, T Irish Travellers, Culture and Ethnicity
Advisory Committee on Travellers (N.I.) With not For
Allen, Judy The Dream Thing
Area Education & Rights Centre Travellers – the nomadic people of Ireland – cultural and social realities
Associazione Tem Romano (mondo Zingaro) Gypsies in Italy
Barnes, Bettina “Irish Travelling People”
Bewley, Victor Travelling People
Binchy, A Irish Travellers: Culture and Ethnicity
Boxall, T. Gypsy Camera
Byrne, Jones & Jones, Carol & T. Lew Gypsy fires
Cannon, Jon & The Travellers of Thistlebrook Travellers: An Introduction
Casey, Maude Over the Water
Castlebrae Community Education Service Traveller writes
Clondalkin Travellers Development Group & Dublin In Depth Photographs Travelling Through Our Family Lives’ – Photographic Exhibition
Conference on Major Religous Superiors Travelling People Today
Council of Europe Gypsies and Travellers: Socio-Cultural Data
Dallas, Duncan The Travelling People
Dempsey, Anne 25 Years with the Travelling People 1965-1990
Dowber, Hilary Travellers and School travellers in Lewisham talk of their experiences of school
Editor – Curtin, Chris Irish urban cultures
Editor – Ian Cruickshank Django’s Gypsies – The Mystique of Django Reinhardt and and hid People
Editor – Mayall, David: Immigrants and Minorities Vol. II, No. 1 Gypsies: the forming of identities and official responses
Editor – Volland, Anita Journal of the Gypsy Lore society (published twice yearly)
Erno, Kiraly Gypsy folk Music from Voivodina
European Ethnic Oral Traditions, Dublin – Editor Tom Munnelly Songs of The Irish Travellers
Finlay, Rev T.A. Occasional sketches of Irish life No. II: the vagrant
Fonseca, Isabel Bury me Standing: the Gypsies and their journey
Fraser, Angus The Gypsies (People of Europe)
Fraser, Angus; Wade, Soravia Angus Fraser on 16th century Gypsy healer
Gmelch, George Change and adaption among Irish Travellers (Ph.D Dissertation)
Gmelch, George The effects of economic change on Irish Travellers sex roles and marriage patterns
Gmelch, George & Kroup, Ben To shorten the road
Gmelch, George & Sharon The Irish Travellers: Identity and Inequality
Gmelch, Sharon A field work experience: Irish Travellers in Dublin
Gmelch, Sharon Economic and power relations among urban Tinkers: the role of women
Goddon, Rumer The Diddakoi
Gormon, Margo Travelling report Newry
Gropper, R.C. Gypsies in the City: Culture patterns and survival
Hall, Wilfred A time to come alive (photos)
Harper, J. The Irish Travellers of Georgia (Ph.D. thesis)
Heleiner, Jane The Tinker’s Wedding Revisited: Irish Traveller Marriage
Helleiener, Jane The Travelling People: cultural identity in Ireland (PhD Thesis)
Helleiner, Jane The tinkers wedding revisited: Irish Traveller marriage
Holdstock, Mark The Great Fair (Horse Dealing at Balinasloe)
Irish Association for Cultural Economic & Social Relations at al. President Robinsons Awards for the Design of Traveller’s Accommodation
Jones, Alan Yorkshire Gypsy Fairs, Customs and Caravans1885-1985
Jones, Alan E. Gypsy Caravans, Their History and restoration
Joyce, Nan We’re a different speaking people with our own traditions
Kelly, Judith The Invention and Inventiveness of Gypsy Culture ‘The Social Constructions of Minorities and cultural rights in Western Europe’ Draft Version
Kenrick, D & Puxon, G Irish Travellers- A Unique Phenomenon in Europe
Kenrick, D & Puxon, G The Destiny of Europe`s Gypsies
Kenrick, Donald Gypsies: Why learn about them?
Kenrick, Donald The portrayal of the Gypsy in English schoolbooks
Koudelka, Josef Gypsies
Kyprianou, Paul Travellers on Mersyside – the experience of racism (MA Thesis)
Law, Barrie A time to look back, Appleby Fair over the last 50 years (photos)
Leblon, Bernard Gypsies and Flamenco
Leland, Charles G. The Gypsies
Liegeois, J-P Gypsies: An illustrated history
MacGreine, Padraig Irish Tinkers or “Travellers”
MacLaughlin, Jim Travellers and Ireland: whose country, whose history?
MacMahon, Bryan A Portrait of Tinkers
Maguire, Des Horses are my life
Mandell, Frederick Gypsies: Culture and Child care
Manush, Leksa Ramayana
Manush, Leksa Roma
Masters, Anthony Traveller`s Tales
Maximoff, Mateo E. Rut
Mc Carthy, Patricia Life with the Travelling People
Mc Donagh, M Nomadism in Irish Travellers’ Identity
Mc Veigh, Robbie & Mc Donagh, Michael Minceir Neeja In The Thome Monkra – Irish Travellers in the USA
Minority Rights Group Moving on: A Photo Resource Pack
Moreaux, R. The Gypsies
National Association of Travellers Training Centres Voice of the Traveller – Issues 7/8 May’94->Oct’94
National Council for Travelling People About our Travelling People
National Council for Travelling People The Travelling Paper
National Gypsy Council The Gypsy Way of Life
Navan Travellers heritage teamwork Now and Then (3 copies)
Ni Fhloinn, Bairbre ‘Irish Traveller and the oral tradition’ in a heritage ahead cultural action and Travellers
Ni Shiuinear, S Irish Travellers, Ethnicity and the Origins Question
Norfolk Traveller Education Service Travellers at fairs and festivals – Talkabout Book 1
Northern Ireland Council for Travelling People The Travelling People in Northern Ireland
O’Baoill, D.P. Travellers’ Cant – Language of Register
O’Connor, DJ A fast disappearing clan: the Irish Tinkers
O’Riain, G Traveller Ways, Traveller Words
O’Rourke, Felim The Travelling People
O’Siochainn, S & Ruane, J & Mc Cann, M Introduction
O’Sullivan, Kay Traveller Woman’s Wash Day
Okely, Judith The Traveller-Gypsies
Pavee Point A Heritage Ahead: Cultural Action and Travellers
photographed & compiled by Janine Wiedel & with a foreword & transcripts by M. O`Fearadhaigh Irish tinkers
Publisher – Barrie Law Times to remember (photos)
Reemtsma, K Ireland’s Discriminated Minority
Rishi, W. R. Multilingual Romani Dictionary
Robey, Sally Tyso`s Promise
Ryan, George The Irish Travellers
Sandford, Jeremy Gypsies
Save the Children Gypsy and Traveller families in the West Midlands
Save the Children Working with Gypsies and Travellers (video)
Spiers, Derek Pavee Pictures
St. Vincent de Paul Society Travelling People – Limerick
Synge, John In Wicklow, West Kerry and Connemara
Tallaght Travellers’ Development Group & ‘Alternative Entertainments’ Stories from the Circle. The Travelling Way of life.
Tallaght Travellers’ Development Group & Alternative Entertainments Community Arts Group A different way: family life and traveller culture
The Anthropoligical Association of Ireland Irish Travellers: Culture and Ethnicity
The Council for Social Welfare The Travelling People
Tomasevic, B & Djuric, R Gypsies of the world
Travellers’ Cultural Heritage Centre & Dublin Travellers Education & Delopment Group Traveller Ways, Traveller Words
Unesco, London The Unesco Courier November 1994
Unspecified Irish clan gathers to observe annual funeral ceremonies
Unspecified Lavs, More Kushti
Waterson, Mary Gypsy Family
Wedeck, Harry Ezekiel Dictionary of Gypsy life and lore
Weldon, Helen Tinkers, Scorners and other Vagabonds
Whyte, Betsy Red Rowans & Wild Honey
WMESTC Somebody told me
Yoors, Jan The Gypsies